What's New in Adobe RoboHelp 6?

By Rob Houser, User Assistance Group, Inc.


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Introduction Link to the review contents

We help authors are passionate about our tools. Do you remember how much everyone freaked out when Microsoft got rid of popups with HTML Help? I actually heard someone say "I can't live without my popups." We have some strong opinions and emotions when it comes to tools and technology.

Since the recent release of Adobe® RoboHelp® 6, we have had a firestorm of highly opinionated and emotional debate about the significance of Adobe's first RoboHelp release (since it purchased Macromedia and inherited RoboHelp from them). With this article, I'm going to attempt to evaluate the release objectively for those of you who haven't had a chance to look at it yourselves. I may sneak in a bit of emotion, but I'll try to save it for the end of the article.

Note: For more details about my relationship with RoboHelp, please see the Full Disclosure section at the end of this article.

Installation Link to the review contents

Unlike previous versions of RoboHelp, you can install RoboHelp 6 alongside RoboHelp X5. Adobe doesn't encourage this because it could get confusing (or violate your license agreement if you purchased an upgrade license). You should note that once you open a project created in X5 with RoboHelp 6 the project is updated and you cannot go back.

Tip: Always copy your entire project before opening it for the first time in RoboHelp 6 just in case.

Another change related to installation is the activation process. Adobe will now track which PCs you activate RoboHelp from. You can have up to two activations, although you cannot use both of them at the same time. If you need to install RoboHelp on a third machine, you will have to inactivate one of the other two activations first. In some circumstances, people will need to call Adobe's customer services to resolve activation issues.

One interesting change that I stumbled across was the lack of the HTML Help Compiler in the install. When I went to compile HTML Help, I got the message shown in Figure 1.

Installation error message

Figure 1: Installation error message

This is a bit inconvenient for less technical users. Fortunately, most users will be working with WebHelp or FlashHelp, but it's an interesting change to the installation process.

One Man's Humble Opinion

I can understand why Adobe would limit a user to two activations, but requiring that the transfer occur from the previously installed computer is going to be a pain for people who can't control when they lose their computer (such as IT people swapping out computers, the breakdown and replacement of an old computer, etc.).

Creating a New Project Link to the review contents

Let's start off with creating a new project.

New Project Wizard

Figure 2: New Project Wizard

When you use the New Project Wizard, you'll notice that FlashHelp Pro is now a supported format. Previously, the RoboServer could only run WebHelp. Some people like FlashHelp simply because of its sleeker interface; however, it also has the benefit of not using Javascripting which helps avoid issues with some corporate firewalls or network restrictions. Also, the toolbar and TOC, Index, Search area will look more consistent across different browsers in FlashHelp because it doesn't change based on the browser being used (as it does in WebHelp).

A Few Minor Points: Adobe finally killed the unnecessary WebSearch feature. They also changed the default folder for new project from the Program Files folder to My Documents.

Same User Interface Link to the review contents

Initial RoboHelp screen for new project

Figure 3: Initial RoboHelp screen for new project

You won't see much difference in the look-and-feel of RoboHelp 6, and that's probably a good thing. RoboHelp's main market strength today is its familiarity. Because the tool has been around for so long and because so many people have already gone through training, you have a wide user population when looking for new hires or contractors. I might have said that RoboHelp's strength is that it's the easiest HAT to use or learn, but I'm not convinced that RoboHelp is much more intuitive than any other HAT (at least, I haven't seen any usability studies proving it). I can say that RoboHelp still masks the underlying complexities of how it works from the users, which makes it a popular HAT for less technical and non-traditional help authors. Writers can work with the WYSIWYG editor without understanding any of the underlying HTML tagging.

User-Defined Variables Link to the review contents

One prominently placed new feature is the user-defined variables.

There is a User-defined Variables folder on the Project tab, which you can use to create and manage all of the variables in your current project. User-defined variables allow you to insert a placeholder for a word or phrase of text (up to 255 characters) that can be substituted through the single-source layouts.

User defined Variables folder

Figure 4: User defined Variables folder with New Variable menu option

Example 1: Company XYZ has a product with three versions: ABC Home, ABC Business, and ABC Pro. With user-defined variables, they could insert a variable called ProductName into their RoboHelp project and then substitute the appropriate product name through a single-source layout for each product variation. This enables Company XYZ to mange three similar products through one help project.

Example 2: Company 123 customizes its help for its largest customers. As part of the branding for the help, they could create a variable called CustomerName and simply substitute the name of each company receiving a version of the help. When they need to add more customers in the future, all they need to do is add a new single-source layout and change the value of the CustomerName variable.

Example 3: Big Bank manages its online help using RoboHelp but it has different cutoff times and customer support numbers based on the user's location. With user-defined variables, they can create a variable for CutoffTime and CustomerSupport and create a single-source layout for each different location.

To create a variable, you give it a name and an initial value, and then insert it into the topic where you want to use it.

New variable dialog box

Figure 5: New variable dialog box

Insert variable menu command

Figure 6: Insert variable menu command

Insert variable

Figure 7: Insert variable

Inserted variable

Figure 8: Inserted variable

When you generate the help, you can override the value of the variable on the first screen of the single-source layout wizard.

Override value

Figure 9: Override value

Notice that these variables are substituted when the output is generated, not dynamically in the runtime environment.

Change value

Figure 10: Change value

RoboHelp 6 also includes a Variables report that allows you to view a list of variables and the topics where they appear.


  • Variables are stored in a file in the project folder called rhvariables.xpj. This means you can share the variables you create with other projects by copying this file to the new projects.
  • Initially, your new variables won't show up with any special marking until you select View > Show > Fields.
  • You can toggle between the field name and field value by right clicking on field and selecting Field > Toggle Field. I couldn't find a way to do this globally for all variables.

Downsides: You cannot use variables in the TOC. You cannot globally remove all instances of a variable.

Bug: RoboHelp allows you to delete a variable but does not prompt you to remove all instances of the variable. This results in an error in your output saying the variable is undefined.

One Man's Humble Opinion

Of course, not everyone will use this feature, but for those of you who are currently using conditional text to toggle between words or phrases it will save you a lot of time. This is a simple but powerful feature that extends RoboHelp's ability to generate multiple outputs from the same content.

Conditional Build Tags Feature Enhanced Link to the review contents

Conditional build tags have been around for the last couple of releases, but with RoboHelp 6 Adobe completed the feature by allowing you to apply build tags to TOC and index entries as well as folders and portions of tables.

To apply the conditional build tags, you create the tag as you have in the past then right click on the element that you want to tag (folder, TOC entry, or index entry).

Applying Conditional Tags to a Folder Link to the review contents

Figure 11, 12, and 13: Applying conditional tags to a folder

In the example shown in Figures 11, 12, and 13, the build tag Online Bills has been applied to the folder Online Bills. Applying the conditional build tag to the folder applies it to all of the topics in the folder. The hatch marks appear over each topic in the folder indicating that it is tagged. You can remove a tag from an individual topic in a tagged folder. Adding a topic to a tagged folder does not automatically tag the new topic.

Applying Conditional Tags to a TOC Item Link to the review contents

Figure 14, 15, and 16: Applying conditional tags to a TOC item

In the example shown in Figures 14, 15, and 16, there are three TOC items all pointing to the same Welcome page; however, each uses a different bank name. Each TOC item is tagged with the corresponding bank name, so only one of these TOC items will be included in the final TOC. The other two will be excluded through a conditional build expression added through the single-source layout.

Things that make you go, hmm: It's a little strange that you can't see and manage build tags through the TOC Page Properties dialog. However, right clicking on the TOC items to apply the build tags isn't difficult to do.

Applying Conditional Tags to an Index Entry Link to the review contents

Tagged index entries

Figure 17: Tagged index entries

In the example shown in Figure 17, the index entries for the online bills content are tagged so that they can be excluded from the help when customers don't purchase the online bills feature in the application. To tag an index entry, you have to right click on each index entry that you want to tag and select the tag you want from the Apply Conditional Build Tag menu option.

This method is a little labor-intensive. You would not want to replace your index with the Smart Index Wizard after spending a lot of time tagging the index entries. It would be easier to mange index entries if they were associated with a particular piece of content. That way they would automatically be tagged when you tagged the content that they refer to.

Things that make you go, hmm: I was surprised that I couldn't view or manage conditional build tags for index entries through the Topic Properties dialog.

Applying Conditional Tags to a Row or Column in a Table Link to the review contents

Tagged table column

Figure 18: Tagged table column

In the example shown in Figure 18, the first column of the table will be excluded. In the past, we could exclude the content of a table but not the portions of the table that held the content. Now we can completely hide rows and columns in a table.

One Man's Humble Opinion

Conditional build tags are the most powerful feature in RoboHelp because they allow you to create different outputs from the same source files. While this feature may seem minor, it (combined with user-defined variables) is one of the most significant features in this release.

Small Suggestion: RoboHelp needs a better way to show conditionalized text other than the hashmarks that obscure the text.

Word Import Improvements Link to the review contents

RoboHelp X5 had some "issues" with Word documents that are fixed in RoboHelp 6. For instance, you can import bulleted and numbered lists (although customized indents must be recreated in the stylesheet), you can maintain styles used inside tables, and you can import headers and footers. Word 2007 is NOT supported by RoboHelp X6. If you plan to upgrade to Vista in the near future, you will need to maintain a computer with Windows XP or Windows 2000 for your RoboHelp development.

One Man's Humble Opinion

These type of fixes seem like they should be free for people who have already bought RoboHelp because it was supposed to import Word documents in the first place, so it's a little tricky to call this a new feature. Still, if you import a lot of Word documents to get content into RoboHelp, you will probably benefit from this enhancement.

Command Line Compilation Link to the review contents

Command line compilation simply means that you can generate one or more single-source layouts without opening RoboHelp. You can also publish the generated output from the command line.

Figure 19: Command line compiling help screen

Why would you want to do this? There are two main scenarios.

Scenario #1: Dynamic Code Builds Link to the review contents

The first scenario is that your developers might want to be able to compile the latest version of your help when they create a new build of the application you are documenting. If you're using source control, the developers can set up their build scripts to check out the latest version of your source files and then command line compile the project, generating the output the way you have configured it through the single-source layout.

Scenario #2: Large Project Builds Link to the review contents

The second scenario is that you may have one or more very large projects. To avoid tying up a computer for the builds, you could schedule the projects to be generated after hours or during lunch when you aren't using your computer. When you come back, the projects will be built. You can even publish projects using the command line compilation.

One Man's Humble Opinion

Command line compilation is a pretty useful feature, especially if you're using source control or have very large projects to manage. I was impressed that the online help gives you plenty of examples about how to set up batch files and use Microsoft's Task Scheduler. Since you can activate two copies of RoboHelp, you could use your second activation for the server. According to the EULA, you can't compile on the server and use RoboHelp on your desktop at the same time. However, you could do overnight builds on the server.

Running WebHelp/FlashHelp Locally Link to the review contents

You've probably noticed that since IE 6.0 started tightening security that you get these annoying prompts that try to block your toolbar when you run WebHelp or FlashHelp locally. RoboHelp 6 has added a checkbox to the single-source layouts to allow WebHelp and FlashHelp to run locally using the "Mark of the Web" from Microsoft. This feature is useful not only for testing the help after you build it but for situations where you actually distribute WebHelp or FlashHelp for local use on the user's hard drive or CD-ROM.

FlashHelp also has an option to Auto-Manage Flash Security, which handles some issues related to tighter Flash security with Flash 7.

Local options

Figure 20: Local options

One Man's Humble Opinion

These are pretty minor enhancements, but they're worth mentioning because they do get rid of some annoying browser behavior.

Printed Documentation Enhancements Link to the review contents

RoboHelp now saves hyperlinks when it generates Word and PDF files. It can also convert headings in the TOC to bookmarks when generating PDF files.

Retain hyperlinks option

Figure 21: Retain hyperlinks option

RoboSource Control Enhancements Link to the review contents

RoboSource Control is a source control package that you can use to manage your RoboHelp projects. With this release, Adobe enhanced the RoboSource Control software so you can actually use it now. In the past, eHelp/Macromedia recommended that RoboSource Control only be used by single-users, not groups of RoboHelp users. Groups that wanted to use source control were encouraged to use Microsoft's Visual SourceSafe. Of course, you can still use any third party source control software (such as Microsoft's Visual SourceSafe) as long as it supports Microsoft's SCC API.

One Man's Humble Opinion

If upper management realized that we weren't all using source control for the work we do every day, many of us would be fired. Source control is vital not only because it allows multiple authors to work on the same project but because it protects our content development in more detail than daily backups on a local server.

Will RoboHelp Support Vista in the Future? Link to the review contents

RoboHelp 6 does not support Vista or Microsoft Word 2007. Adobe has committed publicly that they will support Vista and Office 2007 at a later date; however, they have not specified the date or explained whether the support will be a free upgrade to RoboHelp 6 or a new version that you will need to purchase. If you plan to upgrade to Vista in the near future, you will have to maintain a computer (or virtual machine) with Windows XP or 2000 for your RoboHelp development.

Most big companies won't roll out Vista anytime soon, so the lack of current support for Vista may not be important for them (as long as Adobe provides the support this year). However, for independent consultants and small to mid-sized companies, RoboHelp's lack of support for Vista could be an issue. Many people get the latest operating system and Microsoft Office software as part of buying a new computer. These users will be forced to maintain a second computer or to install a virtual machine to run RoboHelp on a supported platform.

I have not had a chance to test installing RoboHelp on a Vista computer with an older version of Microsoft Word. My new Vista machine is on the way, so I'll let you know if this works by updating this article and through my WritersUA session about RoboHelp.

Should you switch HATs because RoboHelp 6 doesn't currently support Vista? Probably not (at least, not if that's your only reason). Most of the other HATs have not released a version that supports Vista yet. By the time you migrate your current help systems to a new tool, Adobe will probably have released a version that supports Vista.

Note: If you use other Adobe products such as Captivate and Framemaker, you should know that those products have not been certified as Vista compatible either.

Small Stuff Link to the review contents

Adobe listed the following additional minor features or enhancements as new in this release, but I don't think they need any further discussion.

  • Added reports for build tags, missing topic references, and user-defined variables.
  • Added drag and drop of conditional build tags to tag content or an entire topic.

Additional Considerations Link to the review contents

I think that a product needs to be evaluated more on its own features rather than that of other bundled tools; however, it's worth noting that RoboHelp does include some additional "free" tools from Adobe.

Acrobat Elements Link to the review contents

If you don't already have Acrobat 7.0+ installed, RoboHelp will offer to install Acrobat Elements. Having Elements installed will allow you to generate PDF files directly from RoboHelp. You can also use the PDFMaker from your other Microsoft Office applications. Elements will maintain your hyperlinks in the PDF output and convert your headings to bookmarks

. Acrobat options

Figure 22: Acrobat options

One Man's Humble Opinion

I expected something a little more exciting from the makers of Acrobat, but perhaps that will come in the future.

RoboScreenCapture Integration Link to the review contents

If you don't already have a favorite screen capture tool, you can use the RoboScreenCapture tool that comes with RoboHelp. It covers all of the basics that you need for most help screen shots: various shapes and sizes of captures, cropping and scaling, and color control. The possibilities for the command line with scripting are intriguing, although a GUI for repetitive tasks would have been nice. It would be nice if RoboScreenCapture had more advanced annotation and callout features for enhancing screen shots.

One Man's Humble Opinion

Overall, RoboScreenCapture is a nice "freebie" but not a compelling reason to choose RoboHelp as a HAT.

Other Tools to Come? Link to the review contents

Adobe won't comment on future development directions; however, one can't help but wonder with tools like Framemaker, Acrobat, Dreamweaver, Captivate, and Contribute what else Adobe could do to move RoboHelp into the future. For now when you hear the word "integration" think "link to an external tool."

Of course, in thinking about the future we have to acknowledge that today RoboHelp 6 barely interfaces with Framemaker. It only allows a one-way import of MIF files and there is no Framemaker output from RoboHelp at this time.

One Man's Humble Opinion

This lack of integration between the most widely used HAT (RoboHelp) with the most widely used tool for printed documentation (Framemaker) will be embarrassing for Adobe if it isn't resolved soon. I hope that Adobe can envision tighter integration between its various tools beyond simple links to launch the tools.

Looking Underneath the Hood Link to the review contents

I mentioned earlier in this article that RoboHelp shields the users from what's underneath the hood; however, we have to look there briefly to complete this review of RoboHelp 6.

Kadov Tags Link to the review contents

The Kadov tags are still in RoboHelp with 6. You may have heard a lot of discussion about Kadov tags and wondered what they are and why they're so important to some people.

When you look at a RoboHelp topic with the TrueCode editor, you will see that RoboHelp often places tags called "kadov tags" around certain paragraphs. When you generate WebHelp, most of these Kadov tags are removed. In the code, you will still see the word "kadov" used in some of the style classes. Critics of the Kadov tags say that they bloat the code and cause RoboHelp's HTML code to be non-compliant with W3C standards.

Kadov Tags

Figure 23: Kadov Tags

If you select the W3C Compliant Topics option in the single-source layout wizard, your topics will be "Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional" code. You can test this yourself at the W3C site: http://validator.w3.org/.

The truth of the matter is that the kadov tags don't cause problems for your distributed help output. They may be an inefficient way to mark up the code in the source files, but your users won't see them and they don't make your code non-compliant with W3C standards.

One Man's Humble Opinion

The Kadov tag receives more attention than it's worth. What we really care about is the output created by the single-source layout because that's what we deliver to our users. The users don't know that RoboHelp uses Kadov tags today and they won't notice in the future when they're no longer there.

HTML v. XML Link to the review contents

The bigger issue for RoboHelp is that it continues to use HTML as its underlying code. For now, using HTML is not a problem. However, XML has already been identified by the W3C as the next format for web-based content and much of the exciting development in content management and delivering user assistance to small devices is based on the XML format. RoboHelp can, in fact, import and export XML content; however, it is not the native format of the content you create in the WYSIWYG editor and converting to and from XML requires quite a bit of technical knowledge and abilities outside of the normal RoboHelp usage. Adobe will have to update the underlying code soon to keep RoboHelp up with the times (and the other Adobe tools).

One Man's Humble Opinion

For now, the continued use of HTML is not a big problem for most RoboHelp users.

RoboHelp Server Link to the review contents

Most of you probably don't use the RoboHelp Server, but you should consider it. Although the functionality is limited, it does give you some significant benefits. First, it tracks what questions your users enter into the search tool. Second, it allows you to improve search results by creating synonyms. Third, it lets you merge projects so that they share one TOC, index, and search. Fourth, it allows your users to search external documents such as PDF, XLS, DOC, and PPT files as though these documents were part of your help project. This is a great feature for policies and procedures guides when you have a lot of existing content managed through other tools and by other subject-matter experts. But all of that functionality was already in RoboHelp Server.

With this release, you get a few improvements to the RoboServer:

  • You can now create FlashHelp to publish to the server (previously, you could only publish WebHelp).
  • You can now manage the RoboServer remotely from your own desktop rather than establish a remote connection or go to the physical box that houses the server.
  • The natural language search feature has been replaced with a regular keyword search. (I can't swear this is an improvement, but it's a change that fits here).

Simplified Product Packaging Link to the review contents

While packaging technically is not a feature, it is worth mentioning that Adobe has consolidated the RoboHelp offerings to two choices: RoboHelp 6 and RoboHelp Server. When you purchase RoboHelp 6, you get both RoboHelp HTML (for new projects) and RoboHelp for Word (for legacy WinHelp projects). The simplified product packaging makes it easier on new customers to decide what they need. Unfortunately, RoboHelp for Framemaker is still in the ash heap where Macromedia dumped it.

If You're Completely New to RoboHelp Link to the review contents

Much has been made in the public forums about how little Adobe did with RoboHelp in the first release. While I have to agree that RoboHelp 6 isn't earth-shattering, I must point out to those of you who are new to RoboHelp that the tool itself is not new or short on features. RoboHelp is still the most widely used HAT and it has several features that make it worth considering:

  • Support for source control systems which makes it easier and safer to work with multiple authors on the same project and which provides you with sequential backups of your changes so you can rollback to a previous version of any individual file.
  • Option of RoboHelp Server to monitor and track the questions users are asking and to allow the help system to search external documents (DOC, PPT, XLS, PDF) through the same search engine that searches the help topics.
  • Availability of FlashHelp to avoid security issues and to leverage the power of Flash.
  • Ability to upgrade WinHelp projects to an HTML-based help system.

Remote Development Team Link to the review contents

It's worth mentioning that the RoboHelp development work is being off-shored to India. The bulk of the development team is from India and working in India. Adobe has had success with applications such as Acrobat being developed in India. The development team has maintained a high profile in the help community over the past year, attending the conferences and interviewing users.

One Man's Humble Opinion

In my opinion, the main challenge for Adobe is to bring new vision to a tool that has been great in the past but that does not support many of the new directions in the user assistance industry. Adobe needs to do more than make RoboHelp better; they need to allow technical communicators (and subject-matter experts and even the users) to create and manage user assistance in ways that aren't already in place today.

Do You Need To Upgrade? Link to the review contents

If you already have RoboHelp, you may be asking "Do I really need to upgrade?" The answer depends on a few questions.

First, can you benefit from any of the new features available in RoboHelp 6? Hopefully, you already know that from reading this review.

Second, do you use conditional build tags, RoboSource Control, or RoboHelp Server? If yes, then you may want to consider upgrading to take advantage of the enhancements to these features.

If you don't need any of the new features described in this article, then you may want to sit tight and see what happens in future releases before you upgrade.

Ultimately, the decision depends on your specific situation and needs.

About Version Numbers Link to the review contents

What's in a number? Adobe refers to this release as RoboHelp 6 (not X6). By my count, this is the 15th major release of RoboHelp.

I asked the Adobe team to explain why they went with this numbering system and they cited two reasons: (1) Adobe doesn't use the X designation in their product names or version numbers, and (2) many RoboHelp customers think of 6 as the next natural version number.

One Man's Humble Opinion

In my opinion, Adobe should have started RoboHelp over at Version 1.0 to emphasize that this is their first take on the product. Of course, this is a minor point. The real question is this: Is RoboHelp 6 a major release deserving a full point increment? Maybe.

As far as features are concerned, I'd say RoboHelp 6 is really more of a point release. There are a couple of important features, but most of the changes won't drastically enhance what you can create using RoboHelp. This release is mostly improvements to existing features. However, RoboHelp 6 is a significant release because it demonstrates that RoboHelp is still alive-and-kicking, at least for now, and that's something worth noting.

Emotional Comments Link to the review contents

Like many of you, I have had my ups and downs with RoboHelp. I've enjoyed working with the tool for a long time. (Well, at least since they worked out most of the bugs in the first seven releases.) I was surprised and disappointed at the complete lack of interest demonstrated to our industry by Macromedia. And I remain cautiously optimistic that Adobe will invigorate the technical communication community with its newly created suite of tools (which include RoboHelp, Framemaker, Captivate, and Acrobat).

I must also confess that I am excited to see competition in the HAT industry again. Without competition, innovation suffers. I hope that all of the HATs are able to carve out a niche for themselves and to expand their business, not through massive investments in marketing, but through genuine, user-centered innovation. We're already into the new century but have yet to see the technology that will create the future of user assistance.

Full Disclosure Link to the review contents

While I am not the focus of this article, I am aware that my evaluation of the features available in RoboHelp 6 is inevitably somewhat subjective. So, in the interest of full disclosure, I think I should acknowledge a few facts to you, the readers. I attempt to remain somewhat tool neutral in my selection of tools. I think that most HATs have strengths and weaknesses that make them appropriate for different situations. Unfortunately, I simply do not have the time or opportunity to learn every tool thoroughly as my work is largely project-based.

With that being said, you should know that I have been a RoboHelp trainer for a long time now, so I have had a history of using and teaching RoboHelp. I was not included in the beta for RoboHelp 6 until the product was completed, so I did see a pre-release version of RoboHelp but I was not able to contribute to the features in this release. I have done paid work for Adobe/Macromedia/eHelp in the past; however, I did not write this article for Adobe. Joe Welinske suggested that I write the article. He also asked me to give Adobe a courtesy review to ensure technical accuracy, which I did.

I have also been heavily involved as a user and trainer with Madcap Flare. And, in the past, I have received evaluation software from AuthorIT and Help & Manual.

I share all of this information with you because I don't want you to suspect any hidden agendas with my review. The opinions in this review are my own and they are as objective as I could make them.

Rob Houser is a principal consultant for User Assistance Group, Inc. (www.userassistance.com), which specializes in the design and development of user assistance. Rob has created numerous online help systems, including embedded help, as well as classroom and web-based training. His research focuses on the relationship between documentation and training, especially in the analysis and design of online media. Rob is a Certified Instructor for Adobe RoboHelp, Adobe Captivate, and Madcap Flare. He is also a Certified Performance Technologist through ISPI and an Associate Fellow of STC.